Christian History and the Reconquista
The Reconquista (or Reconquest) was the period in history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the time of the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
It was the marriage of Catholic Monarchs (Los Reyes Católicos) Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469 that was the beginning of the end of the Moorish Kingdom. Together the two monarchs controlled vast areas of land in the Iberian Peninsula. Isabella and Ferdinand lead the Granada War, starting in 1482 and concluding with the Battle of Granada in 1491. On 25 November that year, Muhammad XII (called 'Bobadil' by the Spanish), the last Nasrid ruler of Granada, signed the Treaty of Granada; by January 1492 the city had been relinquished to Christian rule.
It was the final defeat of the Moors in Granada that ushered in a new Christian Spain and prompted new voyages and discovery that led Christopher Columbus to the New World (the Americas). Columbus was present in Granada when Muhammad XII surrendered to Queen Isabel and King Ferdinand. It was only months later that he was granted royal support for his trip to the Americas in 1492. The discovery of the “New World” ushered in a time of great stability and power for the Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires.
After 1491, the entire peninsula was controlled by Christian rulers and things quickly changed. During this period all Jews and Muslims were ordered to convert to Christianity or be expelled from the peninsula.
The King and Queen are buried in the Royal Chapel of Granada Cathedral.
Following the defeat of the Arabs in Granada and the new Christian rule, new construction was underway throughout Andalucia. In Almuñécar, the construction of the Church of the Incarnation was started in 1557 and completed to the latest design in 1600. It was the first Baroque-style church in the province of Granada. There was also the addition of a new water fountain on the Calle Real (Royal Street) in 1559 with the royal cypher installed above, which began the Christianization of the Moorish old town.
King Charles III, extensively rebuilt the Almuñécar castle during this period, placing it under the patronage of San Miguel, which is how it is still referred to today.
Christian Monuments to visit in Almuñécar